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The Delta Rhythm Boys

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The Delta Rhythm BoysThe Delta Rhythm BoysThe Delta Rhythm BoysThe Delta Rhythm BoysThe Delta Rhythm Boys
  The Delta Rhythm Boys (Inducted 1999)

Quick: Which singers performed in more motion pictures than any other group in history? The Beatles? Wrong.  THE MILLS BROTHERS? Wrong again.  The Delta Rhythm Boys appeared in 15 films from the early ‘40s to 1956.  But this was only one of the many achievements of the pioneering rhythm and blues group.  If their name doesn’t have the same familiar sign as THE INK SPOTS or Mills Brothers it’s because their 50-year career yielded only one chart hit.  But in terms of singing, they were a hit every time out and became popular through the media of radio, live performances, films, and even Broadway shows.

Their story begins at Langston University in Oklahoma.  Second-year student Lee Gaines had been chosen by school president Dr. Isaac Young to form a university quartet.  Lee, a sousaphone player who had led his freshman vocal quartet to a first prize in class competition, recruited first tenor Elmaurice Miller, second tenor Traverse Crawford, and baritone Essie Atkins while keeping himself on bass.  The group arranged to transfer to Dillard University of New Orleans after meeting Dr. Horace Mann Bond (father of politician Julian Bond), who got the boys excited about the new music program he was assembling at Dillard as its new dean.  In their haste, the group arrived at Dillard a week before classes and had to move furniture and clean floors in order to settle in at the dorm ahead of time.

During the school year, the tutelage of Professor Fredrick Hall and the various concerts at the college and in New Orleans sharpened the group’s harmonies on their repertoire of folk songs, spirituals, and Mills Brothers pop.

On a tour of Southern universities, the group was so well received that when they returned to school they were informed that their tuition fees and costs had been absorbed by the college, in effect granting them full scholarships.

They would never get to use those scholarships fully, however; they met a radio personality from Buenos Aires who was in New Orleans for Mardi Gras to find an act for Argentine radio.  When he came to the college and heard the Fredrick Hall Quartet (they had named themselves after their musical mentor), Senor Adolpho Avaliz asked Dr. Hall if the group’s services could be acquired for several months.  The Doctor agreed they could go when school ended and kept the secret until the quartet’s last appearance of the school year.

In the summer of 1936 the Quartet made their first professional appearance a continent away from home, performing in Buenos Aires and singing weekdays on Argentina Radio Splendid.  A three-month stay turned into seven months of radio works, musical theatre, and performances in Peru and Chile.  Having already missed half the school year, the group decided to take their career further by moving to New York.  They took up residence on 138th Street and 7th Avenue in Harlem in the house where composer Eubie Blake was living.  Blake heard the group rehearsing and tipped the boys to an audition for the Broadway show Sing Out the News, and integrated play requiring a black vocal group.  The quartet won the audition over such luminaries as the DEEP RIVER BOYS and THE CHARIOTEERS.

By now they were calling themselves the Delta Rhythm Boys.  For the next few years their reputations grew through their 15-minutes-a-day radio show on CBS and other Broadway shows such as Hellzapoppin’ and Mike Todd’s The Hot Mikado starring Bill “Bojangles” Robinson.

In 1939 the group met Paul Kapp (brother of Decca Records exec Dave Kapp), and their lengthy recording career began with the recording on December 16, 1940, of four songs for that label.  The first two songs, “Chilly and Cold”/”Gimmie Some Skin,” were released in March 1940.  Meanwhile, they kept up a whirlwind of performance activity, which culminated in a film contract with Universal Pictures.

The early ‘40s saw a new look for the Delta Rhythm Boys: Clinton Holland took over first tenor and was replaced shortly thereafter by Carl Jones; Essie Atkins was replaced by Kelsey Pharr on baritone.

Their multifaceted career continued.  In 1942, they began playing Las Vegas (when it only had two hotels).  They spent two years singing on the “Amos and Andy” radio show.  By the beginning of 1945 they’d already recorded 20 singles (including five with Mildred Bailey and two with Fred Astaire) and appeared in 11 Universal films and shorts including Weekend Pass and Follow the Boys.

In June of 1945 Decca released the first of their sides done with Ella Fitzgerald, “It’s Only a Paper Moon”/”Cry You Our of My Heart.”  “Paper Moon” was a particularly fine shuffle-beat smoothie that had Ell and the boys trading leads.

In December of 1945 the Delta Rhythm Boys’ 23rd 78 hit the market.  “Just A-Sittin and A-Rockin” rose to number 17 on the pop charts their first (and only) chart success.

In 1947, they signed with RCA Records, and among the many classic sides released on the label was the spiritual “Dry Bones” (done with the half-step modulations that the group had used in auditions as far back as 1937) and an arrangement of Duke Ellington’s “Take the ‘A’ Train.”  If you wonder when the vocalese style (that groups like Manhattan Transfer used) started, it was most likely with this recording.  Another nifty RCA release was the bouncy bass-led “Ain’t Gonna Worry ‘Bout a Soul.”

The group’s success and diversified career can be attributed not just to their talent but also to their training, since the members could both write arrangements and read music.

In March of 1949 the Deltas recorded under the name the Four Sharps for Atlantic.  Victor began reissuing several of their 78s on 45 rpm in April 1949, and Decca continued to record and release Rhythm Boys product.  Still, they managed to back on Atlantic and even recorded under their own name for that label in late 1949 with another bass-led ballad, “Sweetheart of Mine.”  Possibly their best Atlantic effort was the jazz-tinged “If You See Tears in My Eyes” of March 1950.

In 1949, the Deltas made their first trip to Europe, performing in Stockholm and then London.  They went on to record numerous Swedish folk songs in Swedish (for Metronome Records in Stockholm) and Finnish folk tunes in Finnish.

During a 1956 trip to Montreal, the group had an impromptu backstage visit from Albert Tavel of the French agency Tavel and Marouani.  He managed to lure the group to Paris for a New Year’s Eve show at the Moulin Rouge; it turned into a nine month engagement.  The “vedettes Americaines” (American stars) became so popular that they signed to record with the French Barclay Records in 1957 and Vega Records in 1958.

In 1960, Kelsey Pharr died in Honolulu after a trip to Japan.  Soon after, Carl Jones left to have more time with his family and was replaced by first tenor Herb Coleman.  Hugh Bryant replaced Kelsey.

With the American music scene changing rapidly, the Deltas found their appeal diminishing.  Overseas they were royally received, however, so in the early 1960s the group made Paris their home base for years of European performances.

In 1974, Herb Coleman was shot in Paris and died in the arms of Lee Gaines.  Original Delta member Traverse Crawford died in the following year.  By 1979, the lineup was Gaines, Bryant, Walter Trammell on first tenor, and Ray Beauty on second tenor.

The group had been together more than 50 years when founder Lee Gaines died on July 15th, 1987, in his home of only one year, Helsinki, Finland.  In a bizarre scenario that brought the group more attention in America than it had received in more than 30 years, Hugh Bryant sang at Lee Gaines’ funeral and upon completing the song died on the spot.

Though not as well-known as some other groups in America, the Rhythm Boys’ musical impact is undeniable.  Jimmy Ricks, the legendary bass of THE RAVENS, chose a singing career due to his being enamored with Lee Gaines’ singing. The Mills Brothers readily acknowledged them as their favorite group.


~ Jay Warner

Soundtrack - Filmography

  1. Rock 'n' Roll Revue (1955) .... Themselves
    ... aka Harlem Rock 'n' Roll (UK)
    ... aka Rock and Roll Review (USA)
  2. "Toast of the Town"
    ... aka The Ed Sullivan Show (USA: new title)
        - Episode #6.9 (1952) TV Episode (as The Delta Rhythm Boys) .... Themselves

  3. Follow the Boys (1944) .... Themselves
    ... aka Three Cheers for the Boys (USA)
  4. Weekend Pass (1944) .... Themselves, The Delta Rhythm Boys

    Filmography links and data courtesy of The Internet Movie Database.
Discography - A Side / B Side
Label / Cat No.
Gimmie Some Skin / Chilly ‘N Cold
Dry Bones / Joshua Fit De Battle Of Jericho
Star Dust / Would It Be Asking Too Much
My Imaginary Love / My Blue Heaven
When That Man Is Dead And Gone / Jenny
Georgia On My Mind / I’m Afraid Of Myself
I Do, Do You (Believe In Love) / The Things I Love
She Believed A Gypsy / Do You Care
Rockin’ Chair / Sometimes I’m Happy
Everything Depends On You / All Too Soon (no group)
It’s So Peaceful In The Country / Lover Come Back To Me
Take The “A” Train / Let Me Off Uptown
Playing The Game / Down On The Delta Shore
Since I Kissed My Baby G’Bye / So Near And Yet So Far
The Wedding Cake Walk / Dream Dancing
When I’m Gone You’ll Soon Forget, When You’re Gone I Won’t Forget
Mad About Her, Sad Without Her, How Can I Be Glad Without Her Blues / Keep Smilin’, Keep Laughin’, Be Happy
Dry Bones / Praise The Lord And Pass The Ammunition
Do Nothin’ Til You Hear From Me / Travelin’ Light
Gee, Ain’t I Good To You? / Is There Somebody Else
It’s Only A Paper Moon / Cry You Out Of My Heart
Baby, Are You Kiddin / Honeydripper
Just A-Sittin’ and A-Rockin’ / Don’t Knock It
Just A-Sittin’ And A-Rockin’ / No Pad To Be Had
But She’s My Buddy’s Chick / Walk It Off
For Sentimental Reasons / It’s A Pity To Say Goodnight
Georgia On My Mind / Rockin’ Chair
Hello, Goodbye, Forget It / Just Squeeze Me (But Don’t Tease Me)
Bye Bye Alibi Baby / Jenny Kissed Me
Hey John (Put Your Glasses On) / I’m Awfully Strong For You
Every So Often / Come In Out Of The Rain
My Future Just Passed / I’m In Love With A Gal
A One-Sided Affair / What Would It Take
Dry Bones / September Song
Take The ‘A’ Train / East Of he Sun, West Of The Moon
St. Louis Blues / Everytime We Say Goodbye
One O’Clock Jump / If You Are But A Dream
Little Small Town Girl / Ain’t Gonna Worry ‘Bout A Soul
Never Underestimate The Power Of A Woman / You’re Mine
I Can’t Tell A Lie To Myself / My Blue Heaven
Don’t Ask Me Why / Fantastic
Don’t Ask Me Why / I Can Hardly Wait
Sweetheart Of Mine / The Laugh’s On Me
(I’ll Come Back) Someday / Why
You Go To Your Church, I’ll Go To Mine Beyond The Sunset / Should You Go First
Nobody Knows / If You See Tears In My Eyes
I’d Rather Be Wrong Than Blue / You Are Closer To My Heart
It’s All In Your Mind / Fan Tan Fannie
Sentimental Journey / I can Dream, Can’t I
All The Things You Are / Blow Out The Candle
Gypsy In My Soul / I’ve Got You Under My Skin
On The Sunny Side Of The Street / They Didn’t Believe Me
Lover Come Back To Me / All The Things You Are
I’ll Never Get Out Of This World Alive / I’m Used To You
Dancing With Someone / Long Gone Baby
It’s All In Your Mind / Sentimental Journey
It’s Only A Paper Moon / For Sentimental Reasons
Have A Hope, Have A Wish, Have A Prayer / Mood Indigo
Shoes / Kiss Crazy Baby
Headin’ For The Bottom / Babylon
Don’t Even Change A Picture On The Wall / That’s Just The Way I Feel
My Own True Love / Work Song

Decca 8514
Decca 8522
Decca 8530
Decca 8542
Decca 3661
Decca 3691
Decca 8554
Decca 8561
Decca 3755
Decca 3888
Decca 3953
Decca 8578
Decca 8584
Decca 3953
Decca 18188

Decca 4128

Decca 4266
Decca 4406
Decca 4440
Decca 18650
Decca 23425
Decca 23451
Decca 18739
Decca 23541
Decca 18911
Decca 23670
Decca 11083
Decca 23771
Vctr 202183
Vctr 202271
Vctr 202365
Vctr 202436
Decca 24193
Vctr 202460
Vctr 202461
Vctr 202462
Vctr 202463
Vctr 202588
Vctr 202855
Vctr 203007
Mscrft 597
Atlantic 875
Atlantic 889
Atlantic 899

Decca 48138
Atlantic 900
Decca 48140
Decca 48148
Atlantic 905
London 1145
Merc 1407
Merc 1408
Merc 1409
Vctr 475094
Vctr 475217
Atln 1023
Decca 29136
Decca 29273
Decca 29329
Decca 29528

Decca 29582
Phlps 40023





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